Did I Infringe a Trademark?

我侵权商标了吗?

If you receive notice that a lawsuit has been filed against you in the U.S. for trademark infringement, it will likely be unclear to you whether you actually infringed. Below, I answer common questions relating to U.S. trademark infringement. First, it is important to understand the specific U.S. laws that define trademark infringement. The U.S. trademark statute is commonly referred to as the “Lanham Act.” 15 USC § 1114 defines what constitutes trademark infringement under U.S. law. 15 USC § 1125 defines a similar type of infringement, false designation of origin, that is almost always sued upon in the same lawsuit. Suits filed in Chicago, a common venue for U.S. trademark violation suits, typically also allege violation of the   Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (15 U.S.C. § 1125(d)) and the Illinois Uniform Deceptive Trade Practices Act (815 ILCS § 510, et seq.) The latter two statutes will be discussed in detail in separate articles.

如果您收到通知,在美国有针对你的商标侵权诉讼已经被提交。你可能会不清楚你是否实际侵犯。下面,我回答有关美国商标侵权的常见问题。首先,重要的是要了解具体的美国法律,定义商标侵权。美国商标法通常被称为“兰哈姆法”。15 USC§1114定义在美国法律下什么构成商标侵权。15 USC§1125定义了一个类似的侵权类型,错误的来源名称,这几乎总是在同一诉讼起诉。在芝加哥提起诉讼,美国商标侵权诉讼的共同场所,通常还指控违反反域名抢注消费者保护法(15 U.S.C.§1125(d))和伊利诺斯统一欺骗性贸易行为法(815§ILC 510 et seq.)后两个条例将在单独的文章中详细讨论。

The information below is responsive to common questions posed by defendants in U.S. trademark violation cases. The list will be updated as new and novel questions are presented. Please also see other articles on our blog or contact us for additional information, a thorough case review and representation.

以下资料回应了美国商标侵权案中被告的常见问题。当新问题出现时会更新。请看我们博客上的其他文章,或与我们联系以获得更多信息,详细的案例回顾和代表。

Question One: The photo and caption do not contain a word mark. For example, I am accused of selling counterfeit Levi’s jeans but the word Levi’s is not on my online stores. Did I Infringe a trademark?

问题一:照片和标题不包含单词商标。例如,我被指控销售假冒李维斯牛仔裤,但李维斯这个词不在我的网店上。我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer One: Trademark protection extends beyond trade names to symbols. For example, the distinctive “arcuate” stitching on the back of a pair of Levi’s jeans is protected by a trademark. A red tab affixed to the back right pocket of a pair of jeans is also protected by a Levi’s trademark. Word marks and marks that consist only of symbols do not have to be displayed together in order to qualify for trademark protection. In this example, if a protected trademark is displayed in a photo online, a trademark has been violated.

回答一:商标保护从商标名称延伸到商标标识。例如,一条李维斯牛仔裤后面独特的“弓状”缝合就是商标保护。贴在牛仔裤右后口袋上的红色标签也受李维斯商标的保护。单词商标和仅由符号组成的标记不必一起显示,以便获得商标保护。在这个例子中,如果一个受保护的商标显示在网上的照片中,商标就已被侵犯。

Question Two: The trademark I am accused of violating is not exactly displayed on my website. For example, a T-shirt posted on my online store shows one of the Angry Birds figures. However, there are differences between the figure on the T-shirt and Angry Birds figures. The Angry Birds figure on the T-shirt has no tail, the eyes are smaller and the eyebrows point in the opposite direction. Did I infringe a trademark?

问题二:控诉我侵权的商标并没有在我的网站上。例如,在我在线商店上显示了一个愤怒的小鸟形象。然而,T恤上的形象和愤怒的小鸟形象是有区别的。T恤上的愤怒小鸟没有尾巴,眼睛要小一些而且眉毛指向相反的方向。那我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer Two:  U.S. trademark law protects not only exact reproductions but also “colorable imitations” of protected trademarks. In this example, a trademark has been violated.

回答二:美国商标法律不仅保护精确的复制也保护“有可能模仿“的受保护的商标。在这个例子中,一个商标被侵犯了。

Question Three: I posted a photo on my website with an infringing mark. However, I did not sell any of the items. Did I infringe a trademark?

问题三:我在我的网站上贴了一张带有侵权商标的照片。然而,我一个都没有卖出。我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer Three: U.S. trademark law broadly protects registered marks. 15 USC § 1114 prohibits the following:

  • use in commerce any reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or colorable imitation of a registered mark in connection with the sale, offering for sale, distribution, or advertising of any goods or services on or in connection with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive; or
  • reproduce, counterfeit, copy, or colorably imitate a registered mark and apply such reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or colorable imitation to labels, signs, prints, packages, wrappers, receptacles or advertisements intended to be used in commerce upon or in connection with the sale, offering for sale, distribution, or advertising of goods or services on or in connection with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive.

  (Unquote)

Actual sale of infringing items is not necessary. “Offering for sale” or “advertising” a registered mark without license is a violation of U.S. trademark law.

回答三:美国商标法广泛保护注册商标。15 USC§1114禁止以下:

  • 商务使用任何再版、伪造、复制、或有可能模仿注册商标与销售联系,提供销售、配送、或广告任何商品或服务的使用有可能导致混淆,或导致错误,或欺骗;或
  • 再版、伪造、复制、或有可能模仿一个注册商标,并将这种再版、伪造、复制、或可能的模仿应用到标签,标牌,印刷,包装,包装材料,容器或广告用于商业或与销售,提供销售、配送、或广告商品或服务相关,这种使用有可能导致混淆或导致错误,或欺骗。

实际出售侵权物品是没有必要的。 “提供销售”或“广告”未经授权许可的注册商标就违反了美国商标法。

Question Four:  A protected trademark or trade name was displayed on my website. However, I did not buy or take possession of the infringing items. I got the photo from another online retailer. I was planning to drop ship any orders from the supplier. Did I infringe a trademark?

问题四:一个受保护的商标或商业名称显示在我的网站上。但是,我没有购买或持有侵权物品。我只是从另一个网上零售商那里拿了照片。我计划根据拿到的订单再从供货商那里拿货。我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer Four:   This question is similar to Question Three above. Actual sale or the taking possession of the infringing items is not necessary. “Offering for sale” or “advertising” a registered mark without license is a violation of U.S. trademark law.

回答四:这个问题类似于上面的问题三。实际出售或持有侵权物品是没有必要的。“提供销售”或“广告”未经授权许可的注册商标就违反了美国商标法。

Question Five:  I did not mean to! I have never heard of the brand before and/or did not know their mark or trade name. Did I infringe a trademark?

问题五:我不是故意的!我以前从来没有听说过这个品牌和/或不知道他们的商标或品牌名。我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer Five:     The unfortunate answer is that in these circumstances, yes. The Lanham Act does not force trademark owners to prove that a trademark violation was intentional. If a trademark is violated, the infringer is liable to the trademark owner. However, damages may be less where the the infringement is not willful.

回答五:在这种情况下,不幸的答案是“是的”。兰哈姆法不强制商标所有者证明商标侵权是故意的。如果商标被侵犯,侵权人应当向商标所有人承担责任。然而,当侵权不是故意,损害可能会减少。

Question Six:   The trademark they say I violated is not registered in China! Did I infringe a trademark?

问题六:他们说我侵权的商标在中国根本没有注册!我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer Six:      Please see our article Jurisdiction for U.S. Trademark Violations 美国商标侵权的司法管辖权.  The lawsuit you face is in the U.S. because you have entered the U.S. market by either selling or offering to sell items into the U.S. It makes no difference that the trademark is not registered in your home country.

回答六:请看我们的文章《美国商标侵权的司法管辖权》。你所面临的诉讼是在美国,因为你已经通过销售或提供出售物品到美国而进入了美国市场。该商标没有在你的祖国注册不会有什么区别。

Question Seven: The trademark they say I infringed looks nothing like what appeared on my online store. Did I infringe a trademark?

问题七:他们说我侵犯的商标和我网站上的看起来根本不像。我侵犯了商标吗?

Answer Seven:  Here, the answer is maybe. Remember, the trademark does not have to be exact but only substantially similar. Whether two marks are substantially similar is a question for the judge or jury.

回答七:在这里,答案是“可能”。请记住,商标不一定是精确的,只要实质上相似就可能侵权。两个标记是否大致相似,是法官或陪审团的问题。

These are a few of the common questions that clients regularly present to us. If your question is not answered here, Contact Us to submit additional questions for review on our blog and for a thorough case review and legal representation.

这是客户经常向我们提出的几个常见问题。如果您的问题没有在这里回答,请与我们联系提交问题和详细案例回顾以及法律代表。

Did I Infringe a Trademark?

 

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